The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty established in 1992 to address the global issue of climate change. It was adopted during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.The objective of the UNFCCC is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous human interference with the climate system. The Convention recognizes that climate change is a common concern of humankind and that it requires the cooperation of all nations to address its impacts.The UNFCCC has three main pillars:1. Mitigation: This pillar focuses on reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit the extent of climate change. Parties to the Convention are required to develop and implement national policies and measures to mitigate emissions.2. Adaptation: This pillar addresses the need to adapt to the impacts of climate change, particularly in vulnerable countries and communities. Parties are encouraged to develop and implement adaptation strategies to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerability.3. Finance and Technology Transfer: The Convention emphasizes the need for financial and technological support from developed countries to developing countries to help them mitigate and adapt to climate change. This includes financial assistance, technology transfer, and capacity-building initiatives.The UNFCCC operates through the Conference of the Parties (COP), which is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. COP meetings are held annually, where representatives from member countries gather to assess progress, negotiate agreements, and make decisions on climate change-related issues.The most notable agreement under the UNFCCC is the Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015 during COP21. The Paris Agreement sets out a framework for global efforts to combat climate change and aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.The UNFCCC plays a crucial role in coordinating international action on climate change, fostering collaboration between nations, and promoting sustainable development practices. It continues to be a key platform for global climate negotiations and initiatives.