Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change

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The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It was adopted on December 11, 1997, in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on February 16, 2005. The protocol aimed to address global climate change by setting binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.Key features of the Kyoto Protocol include:1. Emissions Reduction Targets: The protocol set specific emission reduction targets for developed countries, referred to as Annex I countries, for the period 2008-2012. The targets were legally binding and varied among countries, with an overall goal of reducing emissions by at least 5% below 1990 levels.2. Flexibility Mechanisms: The protocol introduced three market-based mechanisms to help countries achieve their emission reduction targets more cost-effectively. These mechanisms are Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI), and Emissions Trading (ET). They allow Annex I countries to invest in emission reduction projects in other countries or trade emission credits.3. Compliance and Reporting: The Kyoto Protocol established a compliance system to ensure that countries meet their emission reduction commitments. Countries were required to submit annual reports on their emissions and implement domestic measures to track and report progress.4. Adaptation and Financial Support: The protocol recognized the need for adaptation to the impacts of climate change, particularly in developing countries. It established the Adaptation Fund to provide financial assistance to developing countries for adaptation projects.5. Protocol Amendments: Over time, countries have sought to amend the protocol to address its limitations and enhance global climate action. Notable amendments include the Doha Amendment, adopted in 2012, which established emission reduction targets for the period 2013-2020. However, the Doha Amendment has not yet entered into force due to insufficient ratification by countries.It is important to note that the Kyoto Protocol primarily focused on emission reductions by developed countries, as they were historically the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. However, with the evolving understanding of climate change and the need for broader global action, subsequent agreements like the Paris Agreement have sought to engage all countries in addressing climate change collectively.

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