Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants


The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) is an international environmental treaty that was adopted on May 22, 2001, and entered into force on May 17, 2004. The convention aims to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of persistent organic pollutants.Persistent organic pollutants are toxic chemicals that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate in living organisms, and can travel long distances through air and water. They have adverse effects on human health and the environment, including causing cancers, birth defects, and disrupting the immune and endocrine systems.The Stockholm Convention seeks to eliminate or restrict the production, use, and release of twelve specific POPs, known as the “dirty dozen.” These include pesticides like DDT, industrial chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and unintentional by-products like dioxins and furans. The convention provides a framework for parties to take measures to eliminate or minimize the release of these POPs into the environment.Key provisions of the Stockholm Convention include:1. Listing of POPs: The convention initially identified twelve POPs for global action, and additional chemicals can be added to the list through a scientific review process.2. Stockpiles and Waste: Parties are required to develop and implement strategies to manage and dispose of stockpiles and wastes containing POPs in an environmentally sound manner.3. Alternatives and Best Available Techniques: Parties are encouraged to promote the development and use of alternative substances and technologies that are economically and technically feasible.4. Information Exchange and Reporting: Parties are required to share information on their production, use, and release of POPs, as well as develop national implementation plans.5. Financial and Technical Assistance: The convention recognizes the need for financial and technical assistance to help developing countries and countries with economies in transition implement its provisions.The Stockholm Convention has been ratified by 182 countries as of my knowledge cutoff in September 2021, making it one of the most widely supported global environmental treaties. It provides a framework for international cooperation and concerted action to address the risks posed by persistent organic pollutants.

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