Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, also known as the Rio Declaration, was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992. The conference, also known as the Earth Summit, brought together representatives from 178 countries, including heads of state, to discuss environmental issues and sustainable development.

The Rio Declaration consists of 27 principles that outline the fundamental rights, responsibilities, and priorities related to sustainable development. These principles serve as a global guide for balancing environmental protection with socio-economic development. Here is a summary of the key principles of the Rio Declaration:

  1. Principle 1: Human beings are at the center of concerns for sustainable development. They have the right to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.
  2. Principle 2: States have the primary responsibility for sustainable development. They should cooperate to promote development while ensuring environmental protection.
  3. Principle 3: The right to development must be fulfilled so that environmental and developmental needs can be met for present and future generations.
  4. Principle 4: In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process.
  5. Principle 5: All states and people shall cooperate in the eradication of poverty and the promotion of sustainable development.
  6. Principle 6: The special situation and needs of developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, should be given special priority.
  7. Principle 7: States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect, and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem.
  8. Principle 8: To achieve sustainable development, policies should be based on precautionary principles, with the aim of preventing environmental harm.
  9. Principle 9: Environmental impact assessments should be conducted before implementing any activities likely to have significant adverse effects on the environment.
  10. Principle 10: Environmental issues should be handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, including women, youth, indigenous peoples, and local communities.
  11. Principle 11: States should enact effective environmental legislation and develop national law regarding liability for the victims of environmental damage.
  12. Principle 12: States should cooperate to promote a supportive international financial and economic system that would lead to sustainable development.
  13. Principle 13: States should develop national strategies for sustainable development, incorporating environmental protection and poverty eradication.
  14. Principle 14: Integration of environmental and developmental issues is essential for sustainable development.
  15. Principle 15: States should apply the principle of polluter pays to ensure that those responsible for environmental damage bear the costs.
  16. Principle 16: National authorities should promote sustainable development through the exchange of information and cooperation.
  17. Principle 17: Environmental education is essential for promoting sustainable development and improving the quality of life.
  18. Principle 18: States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to sustainable development.
  19. Principle 19: States should encourage the development of sustainable technologies to support sustainable development.
  20. Principle 20: Women have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their full participation is essential.
  21. Principle 21: Youth have a right to an economic, social, and educational environment that supports sustainable development.
  22. Principle 22: Indigenous peoples have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their traditional knowledge and practices should be respected.
  23. Principle 23: The environment and natural resources of people under oppression, domination, or occupation should be protected.
  24. Principle 24: Warfare and armed conflicts can have severe environmental and developmental consequences. Environmental protection should be a priority in such situations.
  25. Principle 25: Peace, development, and environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible.
  26. Principle 26: States shall resolve their

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