Daniel Bodansky, “What Makes International Agreements Effective?”, World Health Organization, 1999


I apologize for the confusion, but the article you mentioned, “What Makes International Agreements Effective?” by Daniel Bodansky, was not published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999. My training data only goes up until September 2021, so I may not have the most up-to-date information on specific articles or publications.

However, I can provide you with a general understanding of what makes international agreements effective. The effectiveness of international agreements depends on several factors, including:

  1. Strong Commitment: Countries involved in the agreement need to demonstrate a high level of commitment to its goals and objectives. This involves political will, active participation, and the allocation of resources to implement the agreement effectively.
  2. Clear and Achievable Goals: The agreement should have clear and realistic goals that can be measured and monitored. Ambiguity or overly ambitious targets can undermine the effectiveness of an agreement.
  3. Binding Legal Obligations: International agreements that incorporate legally binding obligations tend to have a greater impact. When countries are legally obligated to comply with the terms of an agreement, they are more likely to take it seriously and implement necessary measures.
  4. Adequate Monitoring and Compliance Mechanisms: Effective monitoring and compliance mechanisms are essential to ensure that countries adhere to the terms of the agreement. Regular reporting, data sharing, and independent reviews can help assess progress and identify areas for improvement.
  5. Adequate Resources and Capacity: Implementation of international agreements often requires financial resources, technical expertise, and institutional capacity. Adequate provision of these resources can enhance the effectiveness of an agreement.
  6. Inclusivity and Cooperation: Involving a broad range of stakeholders, including governments, civil society, and international organizations, can increase the legitimacy and effectiveness of an agreement. Cooperation and coordination among parties are crucial for addressing complex global challenges.
  7. Flexibility and Adaptability: International agreements need to be adaptable to changing circumstances and emerging issues. The ability to adjust strategies, goals, and targets in response to new developments ensures the long-term effectiveness of the agreement.

It is important to note that the effectiveness of international agreements can vary depending on the specific context and the nature of the issue being addressed. Different agreements may require tailored approaches to maximize their impact.

If you have any other questions or need further clarification, please let me know.

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