Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action . .

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The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action is a human rights document that was adopted at the World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna, Austria, in 1993. It serves as a comprehensive framework for promoting and protecting human rights worldwide. The conference brought together representatives from governments, international organizations, and civil society to discuss and reaffirm their commitment to human rights principles.The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action consists of a preamble and several sections that outline key principles and commitments regarding human rights. Some of the significant aspects covered in the document include:1. Universality, indivisibility, and interdependence of human rights: The declaration emphasizes that all human rights are universal, indivisible, and interdependent. It rejects the notion of selective application of human rights and stresses the importance of considering civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights as interconnected.2. Non-discrimination and equality: The document reaffirms the principle of non-discrimination and the right to equality before the law. It condemns any form of discrimination based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status.3. Civil and political rights: The declaration recognizes the importance of civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and security of person; freedom of thought, expression, assembly, and association; and the right to participate in the political process.4. Economic, social, and cultural rights: The document acknowledges that economic, social, and cultural rights are essential for the dignity and well-being of individuals. It stresses the importance of improving living conditions, eradicating poverty, and promoting access to education, healthcare, and social services.5. Democracy, rule of law, and good governance: The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action highlights the significance of democracy, the rule of law, and good governance in the promotion and protection of human rights. It encourages states to establish and strengthen democratic institutions, ensure transparent and accountable governance, and protect the independence of the judiciary.6. Human rights defenders: The declaration recognizes the crucial role of human rights defenders in promoting and protecting human rights. It calls on states to create an enabling environment for the activities of human rights defenders and to ensure their protection from harassment, intimidation, and reprisals.The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action has been instrumental in shaping human rights discourse and actions at the international level. It reaffirms the commitment of states to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights and provides a framework for addressing human rights violations and promoting human rights worldwide.

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