Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations

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The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations is an international treaty that was adopted in Vienna, Austria, on April 18, 1961. It is the primary international legal instrument governing diplomatic relations between independent states. The convention sets out the rights and obligations of diplomats and the rules for the establishment and operation of diplomatic missions. Key provisions of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations include: 1. Definition of Diplomatic Missions: The convention defines a diplomatic mission as a permanent diplomatic presence, such as an embassy or a consulate, which represents the sending state in the receiving state. 2. Functions of Diplomatic Missions: The convention outlines the functions of diplomatic missions, which include promoting friendly relations between the sending and receiving states, protecting the interests of the sending state and its nationals, negotiating with the receiving state, and providing consular services to nationals of the sending state. 3. Inviolability of Diplomatic Agents: The convention establishes the principle of the inviolability of diplomatic agents, meaning that they are immune from arrest, detention, or prosecution by the receiving state. They are also immune from the jurisdiction of the receiving state’s courts and enjoy personal inviolability and freedom of movement. 4. Protection of Diplomatic Premises: The convention safeguards the inviolability of diplomatic premises, such as the embassy building and the residence of the head of the mission. The receiving state has a duty to protect these premises from intrusion, damage, or disturbance. 5. Freedom of Communication: Diplomatic agents have the right to communicate freely with their sending state and other diplomatic missions. The receiving state must ensure the freedom and security of communication. 6. Privileges and Immunities: Diplomatic agents enjoy various privileges and immunities, including exemption from taxes and duties, inviolability of their official correspondence and documents, and the right to use codes and cyphers. They are also exempt from certain local laws and regulations. 7. Termination of Diplomatic Relations: The convention establishes the procedures for the termination of diplomatic relations between states, including the recall of diplomatic agents and the closure of diplomatic missions. The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations has been ratified by a large number of states and is considered a cornerstone of diplomatic law. It provides a framework for the conduct of diplomatic relations, ensuring the smooth functioning of diplomatic missions and promoting international understanding and cooperation.

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