Universal Declaration of Human Rights


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948. It serves as a foundational text in the field of human rights and is regarded as an international standard for the protection of individual rights and freedoms. The UDHR was drafted in response to the atrocities committed during World War II and is based on the principle that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

The UDHR consists of 30 articles that outline the fundamental rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of their nationality, race, gender, religion, or any other status. Some of the key rights enshrined in the declaration include:

  1. Right to equality: All individuals are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection without discrimination.
  2. Right to life, liberty, and security: Every person has the right to life, liberty, and personal security.
  3. Freedom from torture and inhumane treatment: No one shall be subjected to torture, cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.
  4. Right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, including the freedom to change their religion or belief.
  5. Right to freedom of expression: Every person has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, including the freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas.
  6. Right to education: Education is a fundamental right, and everyone has the right to free and compulsory education at least in the elementary stages.
  7. Right to work and fair wages: Everyone has the right to work, to just and favorable conditions of employment, and to protection against unemployment.
  8. Right to a standard of living: Every individual has the right to a standard of living adequate for their health and well-being, including food, clothing, housing, and medical care.

These are just a few examples of the rights outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The declaration has been influential in shaping subsequent human rights treaties and documents, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. It continues to serve as a guiding principle for promoting and protecting human rights globally.

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