Universal Declaration of Human Rights


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the field of human rights. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, in response to the atrocities and human rights abuses witnessed during World War II. The UDHR sets out fundamental human rights and freedoms that are inherent to all individuals, regardless of their nationality, race, religion, gender, or any other status.

The UDHR consists of a preamble and 30 articles that provide a comprehensive framework for the protection and promotion of human rights. Some of the key principles enshrined in the declaration include:

  1. Equality and non-discrimination: All individuals are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are entitled to equal protection under the law, without any discrimination based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status.
  2. Right to life, liberty, and security: Every person has the right to life, liberty, and security of person.
  3. Freedom from torture and inhumane treatment: No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.
  4. Right to a fair trial: Everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal.
  5. Freedom of thought, conscience, and religion: Every individual has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion. This includes the freedom to change one’s religion or belief.
  6. Right to education: Everyone has the right to education, which should be free and accessible to all.
  7. Right to freedom of expression: Every person has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, including the freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media.
  8. Right to work and just conditions of employment: Everyone has the right to work, to just and favorable conditions of work, and to protection against unemployment.
  9. Right to adequate standard of living: Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of themselves and their family, including food, clothing, housing, and medical care.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been widely recognized and serves as a foundation for subsequent human rights treaties and instruments at the international, regional, and national levels. It continues to be a vital reference point for the promotion and protection of human rights around the world.

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