The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is an international treaty that provides a comprehensive framework for governing the use and conservation of the world’s oceans and their resources. It was adopted in 1982 and entered into force in 1994. UNCLOS is often referred to as the “constitution for the oceans” as it sets out the rights and responsibilities of states in various maritime zones.Here are some key features and provisions of UNCLOS:1. Territorial Sea: UNCLOS establishes a territorial sea, which extends up to 12 nautical miles from a coastal state’s baseline. Within this zone, the coastal state has full sovereignty, including the right to regulate and enforce laws.2. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): Beyond the territorial sea, UNCLOS provides for an EEZ that extends up to 200 nautical miles from the baseline. Within the EEZ, the coastal state has sovereign rights over the exploration and exploitation of natural resources, both living and non-living.3. Continental Shelf: UNCLOS defines the continental shelf as the seabed and subsoil that extends beyond the EEZ and is a natural extension of the land territory. Coastal states have sovereign rights to explore and exploit the resources of the continental shelf.4. Freedom of Navigation: UNCLOS guarantees the freedom of navigation for all states, both coastal and non-coastal. Ships have the right to traverse the high seas and other maritime zones without interference, subject to certain regulations and restrictions.5. Conservation and Environmental Protection: UNCLOS emphasizes the need to protect and preserve the marine environment. It establishes obligations for states to prevent, reduce, and control pollution of the marine environment, including measures to address oil spills and other forms of pollution.6. Marine Scientific Research: UNCLOS promotes international cooperation in marine scientific research. It sets out principles and procedures for conducting research in the marine environment and ensures that the benefits derived from research are shared with the international community.7. Dispute Settlement: UNCLOS provides a comprehensive framework for the settlement of disputes related to the interpretation and application of the Convention. It establishes the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) and encourages states to resolve disputes through peaceful means.UNCLOS has been widely ratified, with over 160 countries and the European Union being party to the Convention. It is considered a foundational document in the field of international law and has played a crucial role in shaping the legal framework for ocean governance.