International Humanitarian Law (IHL), also known as the law of armed conflict or the law of war, primarily developed to regulate the conduct of states in international armed conflicts. However, over time, it has also been recognized that certain provisions of IHL are applicable to non-international armed conflicts, which are conflicts that occur within the boundaries of a single state. The application of IHL to non-international armed conflicts is based on customary international law, treaty law, and the recognition of certain minimum standards of humane treatment.
The application of IHL to non-international armed conflicts is primarily governed by two legal instruments:
- Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions: Common Article 3 applies to non-international armed conflicts and provides a basic set of humanitarian protections for all persons who are not or are no longer taking part in hostilities. It prohibits violence to life and person, cruel treatment, torture, and outrages upon personal dignity. It also prohibits the taking of hostages and the passing of sentences without proper judgment by a regular court. Common Article 3 is considered a part of customary international law and is binding on all parties to a non-international armed conflict.
- Additional Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions: Additional Protocol II was adopted in 1977 and provides additional protections to individuals in non-international armed conflicts. It applies when a non-state armed group is party to the conflict against the government forces. The protocol contains detailed provisions on humane treatment, fundamental guarantees, fair trial, and the protection of specific categories of persons, such as the wounded, sick, and medical personnel. Additional Protocol II is a treaty and applies only to states that have ratified it.
In addition to these specific instruments, customary international law also plays a significant role in the application of IHL to non-international armed conflicts. Customary rules derived from state practice and opinio juris (a belief that certain actions are legally required) bind all parties to non-international armed conflicts, regardless of whether they have ratified specific treaties.
It is important to note that the application of IHL to non-international armed conflicts is a complex and evolving area of international law. States and international tribunals continue to interpret and clarify the scope and content of IHL rules applicable to such conflicts.