Permanent sovereignty over natural resources, also known as permanent sovereignty over natural wealth and resources, is a principle of international law that asserts the right of nations to freely utilize, manage, and benefit from their natural resources without external interference. It grants sovereign states the authority to make decisions regarding the exploration, development, and use of their natural resources within their territories. The principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources is rooted in the concept of state sovereignty, which is the fundamental principle of international relations that recognizes the independent and autonomous authority of each state over its internal affairs. It is closely related to the broader concept of self-determination, which allows nations to freely determine their political status and pursue their economic, social, and cultural development. The principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources gained significant recognition and support in the 20th century, particularly during the period of decolonization. Many newly independent nations sought to assert control over their natural resources, which had often been exploited by colonial powers for their own benefit. One of the most notable expressions of the principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources is found in the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1803 (XVII) adopted in 1962. This resolution proclaimed the right of all nations to exercise permanent sovereignty over their natural resources and called for an end to the exploitation of resources by foreign powers. The resolution emphasized that the exploitation of natural resources should be carried out in the best interests of the people of the country concerned. Despite the recognition of this principle, conflicts and challenges related to the exercise of permanent sovereignty over natural resources still persist. Issues such as foreign investment, resource extraction contracts, environmental concerns, and the equitable distribution of resource revenues continue to be subjects of debate and negotiation between nations. It is worth noting that the principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources does not absolve states from their responsibilities to protect the environment, ensure sustainable development, or respect human rights. International law recognizes that states have a duty to balance the economic exploitation of their natural resources with the need to protect the environment and promote the well-being of their citizens.