The Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, commonly known as the ENMOD Convention, is an international treaty that prohibits the use of environmental modification techniques for military or hostile purposes. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1976, and entered into force on October 5, 1978.
The ENMOD Convention was a response to concerns about the potential military use of weather modification techniques, such as cloud seeding or the manipulation of natural phenomena like hurricanes, floods, or droughts. The treaty aims to prevent the use of environmental modification techniques that could have widespread, long-lasting, or severe effects on the environment, leading to damage or destruction of ecosystems, disruption of weather patterns, or harm to human health and well-being.
Under the ENMOD Convention, States Parties undertake not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques that could have such effects. They are also obligated to refrain from assisting, encouraging, or inducing others to engage in such activities. Additionally, the treaty requires States Parties to provide assistance and cooperation to affected states in the event that environmental modification activities cause harm.
It’s important to note that the ENMOD Convention focuses specifically on military or hostile use of environmental modification techniques and does not address peaceful or scientific applications of these technologies. The treaty does not ban all forms of weather modification or environmental research but rather seeks to prevent their use as weapons or means of warfare.
The ENMOD Convention currently has 78 States Parties, including major world powers. It reflects the international community’s recognition of the potential dangers associated with the military manipulation of the environment and the need to safeguard the Earth’s ecosystems and the well-being of humanity.