Convention on rights and duties of States .

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The Convention on Rights and Duties of States, also known as the Montevideo Convention, is an international treaty that was adopted on December 26, 1933, in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is one of the key documents that define the principles and norms of international law regarding the rights and responsibilities of states.

The Montevideo Convention establishes the following criteria for the recognition of states:

  1. A permanent population: The state must have a permanent population that resides within a defined territory.
  2. A defined territory: The state must have a clearly defined territory that is internationally recognized.
  3. A government: The state must have a functioning government that exercises effective control over its territory and population.
  4. The capacity to enter into relations with other states: The state must have the ability to enter into diplomatic relations and engage in international affairs.

These criteria provide a basic framework for determining whether an entity can be considered a state under international law. However, it is important to note that the Montevideo Convention is not the sole authority on statehood, and other factors, such as recognition by other states, can also play a role in determining statehood.

Additionally, the Montevideo Convention outlines the rights and duties of states. Some of the key principles include:

  1. Sovereignty: States are recognized as sovereign entities with the exclusive right to govern their internal affairs and determine their own political, economic, and social systems.
  2. Equality: States are considered equal under international law, regardless of their size, population, or wealth. Each state has the same legal rights and obligations.
  3. Non-intervention: States are expected to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other states and refrain from interfering in their internal affairs.
  4. Self-defense: States have the inherent right to self-defense against armed attacks and can take necessary measures to protect their sovereignty and security.

The Montevideo Convention continues to be an important treaty in international law, shaping the principles and practices related to statehood, recognition, and the rights and responsibilities of states in the international community

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