Convention on rights and duties of States . . . .
The Convention on Rights and Duties of States, commonly known as the Montevideo Convention, is an international treaty that sets out the fundamental principles and norms governing the rights and obligations of states in the international system. It was adopted in 1933 during the Seventh International Conference of American States held in Montevideo, Uruguay. The Montevideo Convention is considered one of the key documents in international law concerning the nature and recognition of states.The convention defines a state as a political entity that possesses four essential qualifications: a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states. According to the convention, states are considered equal and sovereign entities, and their rights and duties are based on the principles of non-intervention, territorial integrity, self-determination, and peaceful coexistence.The Montevideo Convention outlines the rights and duties of states in various areas, including territorial integrity, diplomatic relations, extradition, treaties, state succession, and the peaceful settlement of disputes. It emphasizes the principle of non-intervention, which states that no state has the right to interfere in the internal affairs of another state. Additionally, the convention recognizes the right of states to self-defense and the duty to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of other states.The Montevideo Convention remains an important reference point in international law and is often cited in discussions and disputes concerning statehood, recognition of states, and the rights and obligations of states in the international arena. However, it should be noted that the convention predates many significant developments in international law, and some of its provisions have been supplemented or modified by subsequent treaties and customary international law.