Convention on biological diversity


The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international treaty that aims to promote the conservation, sustainable use, and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the world’s biodiversity. It was adopted during the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992 and entered into force on December 29, 1993.

The CBD has three primary objectives:

  1. Conservation of Biological Diversity: The CBD seeks to conserve biodiversity, including ecosystems, species, and genetic resources. It emphasizes the importance of protecting and maintaining the diversity of life on Earth.
  2. Sustainable Use of Biological Resources: The CBD promotes the sustainable use of biological resources, ensuring that they are used in a way that does not deplete or harm biodiversity. It recognizes that sustainable development is crucial for long-term conservation.
  3. Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing: The CBD aims to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits that arise from the utilization of genetic resources. This principle highlights the importance of respecting the rights of indigenous and local communities and ensuring that they receive a fair share of the benefits derived from the use of traditional knowledge and genetic resources.

To achieve these objectives, the CBD encourages countries to develop national strategies, establish protected areas, promote sustainable development practices, and integrate biodiversity considerations into various sectors such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and tourism.

The CBD has been successful in raising global awareness about biodiversity conservation and has led to the establishment of numerous protected areas and conservation initiatives worldwide. However, challenges remain in effectively implementing its provisions and addressing the ongoing loss of biodiversity caused by factors like habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, and overexploitation.

Several additional agreements have been developed under the CBD to address specific aspects of biodiversity conservation, such as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which focuses on the safe transfer, handling, and use of genetically modified organisms, and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, which aims to ensure fair benefit-sharing related to genetic resources.

The CBD remains an essential international framework for biodiversity conservation, and its ongoing implementation is crucial for safeguarding Earth’s ecosystems and the countless species that depend on them.

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