1962-71 : improving relation with the Soviet policy
From 1962 to 1971, there were significant developments and shifts in the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. Here are some key events and policies during that period:
- Cuban Missile Crisis (1962): The Cuban Missile Crisis was a major confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. The U.S. discovered Soviet missile bases in Cuba, leading to a tense standoff. Eventually, the crisis was resolved diplomatically, with the U.S. agreeing not to invade Cuba and the Soviet Union removing its missiles.
- Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963): The United States and the Soviet Union, along with the United Kingdom, signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, underwater, and in outer space. This marked a significant step towards nuclear arms control.
- Hotline Agreement (1963): The U.S. and the Soviet Union established a direct communication link, known as the “hotline,” between the leaders of the two countries. This helped in preventing misunderstandings and reducing the risk of accidental nuclear war.
- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968): The United States, the Soviet Union, and other nations signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which aimed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. The treaty committed signatory nations to disarmament negotiations while allowing peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
- Détente (Late 1960s and early 1970s): Détente refers to a period of improved relations and reduced tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. This policy included various diplomatic initiatives, such as arms control negotiations and increased cultural exchanges.
- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I, 1969-1972): The United States and the Soviet Union engaged in negotiations to limit the growth of their strategic nuclear arsenals. SALT I resulted in the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the Interim Agreement, which capped the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers.
- Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1972): As a symbol of improving relations, the United States and the Soviet Union conducted a joint space mission, known as the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. It involved a docking between an American Apollo spacecraft and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft.
Overall, during the period from 1962 to 1971, there were efforts to ease tensions and improve relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cuban Missile Crisis and subsequent events prompted both countries to recognize the importance of avoiding direct conflict and pursuing diplomatic solutions. The establishment of arms control agreements and initiatives like the hotline and cultural exchanges contributed to a gradual improvement in relations, leading to the era of détenteTags: alignment with west, challenges to foreign policy of pakistan, era of alliances 1954-1962, era of neutrality 1947-1953, foreign policy of pakistan in 1950s, foreign policy of pakistan with india, pakistan and the us relations, pakistan and us: options for each other, pakistan foreign policy challenges, pakistan relations with china, pakistan relations with europe, pakistan relations with muslim world, pakistan relations with ussr