1953-62 the Baghdad pact/ CENTO


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Categories : International Relation


The Baghdad Pact, also known as CENTO (Central Treaty Organization), was a defense alliance established in 1955 among several countries in the Middle East and South Asia. The member countries of the Baghdad Pact were Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.

The primary purpose of the Baghdad Pact was to counter the perceived threat posed by the Soviet Union in the region during the Cold War. The alliance aimed to promote mutual cooperation in defense and security matters, as well as to prevent the spread of communism and maintain stability in the region.

The member countries agreed to provide mutual assistance in case of an armed attack on any of them. They also pledged to consult with each other on matters of common interest and hold regular meetings to coordinate their defense policies. The United States was closely associated with the Baghdad Pact and provided support to its member countries.

Despite its objectives, the Baghdad Pact faced challenges and limitations. Iraq withdrew from the alliance in 1959 following a coup d’├ętat that brought the Ba’ath Party to power. The alliance was further weakened when Pakistan, under President Ayub Khan, withdrew in 1979 due to internal political changes and regional dynamics.

With the withdrawal of key members, the organization’s activities dwindled, and the Baghdad Pact officially ceased to exist in 1979. Its dissolution was mainly due to internal political shifts, regional rivalries, and the changing dynamics of the Cold War.

It’s worth noting that the Baghdad Pact/CENTO was replaced by the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) in 1964, which included Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey. The RCD, too, experienced limited success and ultimately dissolved in the late 1970s.

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